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REPLACING HEART VALVES WITHOUT OPEN CARDIAC SURGERY

Transcatheter  valves are actually in the majority of recent valve replacement procedures today.  This can be achieved without open heart surgery.  Coronary intervention involves opening the coronary arteries on the the surface of the heart, which has been done for years.  Two-thirds of the arteries open after receiving various pharmaceuticals, leaving a third of the [...]

By | 2017-08-29T20:51:53+00:00 August 29th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

B-CELL DEVELOPMENT

B-cells develop in the bone marrow.  The development of the B-cell in the bone marrow is where the B-cell develops it’s immunoglobulin gene that it expresses on the surface.  B-cell development begins there with heavy chain gene formation with the genes heavy V and heavy DJ.  Say it hasn’t rearranged the light chain yet.  A [...]

By | 2017-08-29T20:45:21+00:00 August 29th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

Virus Structure

Nucleocapsids are nucleic acids complexed with the protein within a virus.  To grasp how small viruses are, a polio virus is 30 nanometers.  The viruses have spikes on their outside.  Tobacco mosaic viruses are round shaped viruses.  Many capsid proteins can reassemble into virus like proteins (VLPs).  Hepatitits B-Virus (HBV) and Human Papilloma-Virus (HPV) vaccines [...]

By | 2017-08-01T19:11:31+00:00 August 1st, 2017|Science|0 Comments

THE THEORY BEHIND ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE THERAPY

As you are probably aware, antisense oligonucleotides are synthetic single-stranded chains  of nucleic acids that bind to RNA (ribonucleic  acid) ; and in doing so alter the  or reduce the expression of the target RNA.  They reduce expression of mutant proteins and restore expression of wild type proteins. Anti-sense oligonucleotides also are known to interfere [...]

By | 2017-07-20T16:23:41+00:00 July 20th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

HOW TO COMBAT HIV

HIV (which stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus) was discovered in the late 1970’s. Some of the people that acquired the HIV virus were coming down with AIDS(Acute Immuno – Deficiency Syndrome).  These patients started dying from very common diseases.  The HIV virus was found by assaying for the enzyme reverse transcriptase.  When activated reverse transcriptase [...]

By | 2017-07-20T16:19:05+00:00 July 20th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

Immunosuppressive Drugs for Kidney Transplantation

For kidney patients, dialysis is an effective way of preserving life; but transplantation of the kidney is the optimal choice.  Now, with immunosuppressive medications, less than 20% of kidney transplant patients realize rejection.  The rejection of the new kidneys by the patients decreased dramatically around 1995; and the discovery of new anti-rejection drugs stopped around [...]

By | 2017-07-18T18:00:01+00:00 July 18th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

Gene Therapy

In gene therapy, scientists infect cells with retroviruses that can be programmed to carry a gene.  This gene can override a mutation and encode a protein that performs normally.  However, there may be some side effects.  Originally in these cells, the mutated genes may cause deformed proteins to be translated or possibly certain proteins may [...]

By | 2017-07-18T17:58:16+00:00 July 18th, 2017|Science|0 Comments

RADIATION ONCOLOGY

The linear accelerator was developed by Henry Kaplan at Stanford University.  The treatment of malignant and non-malignant conditions was limited by skin toxicities.  Linear accelerators generate high energy treatment regimens.  The physician must examine the patient and determine if the cancer patient should be treated with radiation therapy.  He must work up a good case [...]

By | 2017-07-11T17:12:24+00:00 July 11th, 2017|Science|0 Comments